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翻译:批判性阅读

Critical Reading

Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make statement. Critical reading is active reading. It involves more than just understanding what an author is saying. Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying, and forming your own opinion about what the author is saying. Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader.

批判性阅读应用于非小说类作品,也就是作者发表观点或试图发布声明的作品。批判性阅读是积极的阅读,它不只是理解作者在说什么。批判性阅读包含对作者所说的进行质疑和评估,并形成自己的观点。以下是成为批判性读者要做的事。

Consider the context of what is written. You may be reading something that was written by an author from a different cultural context than yours. Or, you may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours. In either case, you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author.

考虑所写内容的上下文。你可能会读到与你文化背景不同的作者写的作品,或者是与你时间不同的旧作品。在任何一种情况,你必须认识和重视你的价值观和态度与作者所表达的差异。

Question assertions made by the author. Don't accept what is written at face value. Before accepting what is written, be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions made. Look for facts, examples, and statistics that provide support. Also, look to see if the author has integrated the work of authorities.

质疑作者所作出的断言。不要接受表面所写的东西,在接受所写的之前要先确定作者是否为他的断言提供了足够的支持。寻找提供支持的事实、例子和统计数据,另外看看作者是否整合了权威的著作。

Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. Look to see that what is written is consistent wit h what others have written about the subject. If there are inconsistencies, carefully evaluate the support the author provides for the inconsistencies.

比较这个主题的其他作品。看该作品是否与同主题的其他人的作品一致。如果不一致,就要谨慎评估作者对不一致所提供的支持。

Analyze assumptions made by the author. Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions. In many cases, the author's assumptions are not directly stated. This means you must read carefully in order to identify any assumptions. Once you identify an assumption, you must decide whether or not the assumption is valid.

分析作者所做出的假设。假设是作者为了断言必须相信的东西,在许多情况下,作者的假设不是直接阐述的。这意味着你必须仔细的辨别假设,一旦你识别到了一个假设,必须要决定这个假设是不是正确的。

Evaluate the sources the author uses. In doing this, be certain that the sources are credible. For example, Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing about landmark acheievements in physics. Also be certain that the sources are relevant. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry. Finally, if the author is writing about a subject in its current state, be sure that the sources are current. For example, studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge in physics.

评估作者使用的资料来源。在做这件事的时候,要确定来源的可信程度。例如,如果作者在写关于物理里程碑的成就时,那么爱因斯坦就是可靠的来源。同样也要确定来源具有相关性,当主题是描写诗歌时,爱因斯坦就不算是具有相关性的来源。如果作者撰写的是当前状态的主题,要确保来源是最新的。例如,如果作者在讨论物理学中当前的知识状态,爱因斯坦在20世纪早期所做的研究是不合适的。

Identify any possible author bias. A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican. What is written may very well reflect a biased position. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what the author has written. That is, take what is written with "a grain of salt."

找出作者任何可能的偏见。根据作家是民主党人还是共和党人,对美国政治的讨论将会有相当大的不同,所写的内容可能会很好的反应偏见的立场。当你阅读所写的东西时,需要考虑这种偏见的可能。也就是,用“一粒盐”来写。

By being a critical reader, you will become better informed and may change your views as appropriate.

作为一个批判性读者,你将变得见多识广并且可能在适当的时候改变你的观点。

原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/enochzzg/p/9637831.html

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